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February 25, 2019

Best Winter Pruning Practices to Promote Spring Growth

An often-missed opportunity for beautifying the landscape in the winter months is deciduous shrub and tree pruning. As the colors of spring and summer fade into fall with each plant entering a state of dormancy, the plants are easily disregarded. This naturally occurring dormant stage of the plant provides the ideal conditions for pruning. Pruning is crucial to both plant health and aesthetics for a number of reasons. It helps to maintain size, shape, and form of overgrown plants but also to remove dead or diseased branching. The process of “thinning” or removing overgrowth opens the crown of the plant for more direct sunlight and air movement within. When performed correctly, this process results in a more vigorous spring growth and bloom of the plant.

Signs Your Shrubs or Trees Need Pruning

  • Garden beds are simply over run by deciduous shrubs
  • Branches are rubbing together or crossing
  • Insect egg masses or larvae are present
  • Open lesions or areas that look to be diseased are visible
  • Plant is visibly too big
  • Dead plant material


  • Consider the natural shape of the plant when determining what to remove
  • Never remove more than ⅓ of plant material from any one plant
  • Always leave a node or branch on the plant below each cut to ensure new growth during the growing season
  • Disinfect pruning tools to eliminate spreading disease
  • Remember that a successful prune may look as if you’ve done nothing at all
  • Winter! Winter! Winter! Take advantage of the seasonal dormancy and plan for the health of the plants.
November 30, 2018

Reflecting On The Growing Season

As we retreat into our homes for the winter, now is the time to think back to the past growing season while it’s fresh in your mind and take notes for next season. If you wait too long into the winter, the growing season will seem like a distant dream and you may not remember all of the successes and failures you’ll want to learn from for next year.

Garden Journal

Keeping a garden journal — or even a running list — of things throughout the growing season will benefit you greatly when planning for next year. Take note of any new varieties (even annuals) that you planted and periodically jot down how they’re doing in your garden. If you moved or divided existing perennials, it’s important to note the date that you did this and how they’re doing towards the end of the season.

If you’re feeling extra ambitious, head out to the garden once a week and make a list of what’s in bloom. This is a fantastic way to look back at the season and take notice of times in the season where you may have wanted more color. Then you can look up varieties that bloom during that time and add them in spring. If you loved a particular bouquet you cut from your garden, write down the varieties and date you cut it. All of this information is so helpful to future you who may feel like the summer was too far gone to remember.

End-Of-Season Breakdown

Even if you didn’t keep a garden journal throughout the season, it’s nice to write down an end-of-season “debrief” while it’s still fresh in your mind. Overall, what were you favorite moments you enjoyed in your landscape? What plants stood out to you that looked especially fantastic? What plants do you remember struggling with? This is a fun activity for one of those first cold days you’re stuck inside. Look back at photos you have saved on your phone or those you posted to social media to help refresh your mind.

Looking Forward To Next Season

Although you may want to wait a few months to actually make your list of plants you’d like to order for next season, now is the time to think about what you want to accomplish in the garden while it’s still fresh in your mind. If you want more fragrant plants, make a note of this. If you felt like you could have grown more Carrots, write this down to order more come spring. If you loved a particular annual you got at the garden center, make sure to add this to your notes to order for next year.

Our growing season are so short here in Vermont it is easy to become overwhelmed with everything that needs to be done in such a short amount of time. But taking an hour or two once the cold weather sets in to remember what went well and what could have been improved will help you immensely once you start planning for next season.

November 16, 2018

How To Put Your Garden To Rest For The Season

Fall can come swiftly here in Vermont and it can be hard to get everything done before the snow sticks, but there are a few things you should (and shouldn’t do) before the winter to help ready your garden for a successful season once the ground thaws in spring. We’ll go over our top musts for putting your garden to rest for the season and a few things you can put off until spring.

Leaves – To Rake Or Not To Rake

Many of us are quick to get out the rake and remove all fallen leaves from our pristine lawns, but it may be better for our landscape if we strategically let them be in certain spots. If you’re in a suburban neighborhood or complex that requires you keep your lawn leaf-free, by all means remove them if you must. But if you have more leeway on your property, here are some tips to benefit your soil and save you time in the fall:

  • Leaves not only break down and add nutrients to your lawn and gardens, but also provide important bedding and nesting materials for a variety of wildlife — including beneficial bugs that help keep your yard healthy. But this won’t work if you simply leave full leaves covering your entire lawn. Use a mulching mower (or even a regular mower) to cut your leaves into tiny pieces so they can break down completely before the spring.
  • Broken-down leaves can also be a fantastic mulch for garden beds, especially if you have new perennials or just-hardy varieties like Lavender that may need a little more protection from our harsh winters.
  • If you do decide to clear your property of leaves, instead of hauling them off to the landfill, consider instead adding them to your home compost. You can also keep a pile of leaves right next to your compost to help cover layers of kitchen waste throughout the colder months.

Cutting Down Plants

We’ve talked about this in previous blogs, but there are some plants that should be cut down in fall and some that should be left standing until spring.

Plants that should be cut down in fall:

  • Bearded Iris
  • Bee Balm (Monarda)
  • Phlox
  • Lilies
  • Gaillardia (Blanket Flower)
  • Catmint (Nepeta)
  • Columbine (Aquilegia)
  • Daylily (Hemerocallis)
  • Peony (Paeonia)
  • Salvia
  • Solomon’s Seal (Polygonatum odoratum)
  • Yarrow (Achillea)
  • Hostas
  • Astilbe

Plants that should be left standing until spring:

  • Wildflowers
  • Echinacea (Coneflower) and Rudbeckia (Black Eyed Susan) should be left up until spring to attract and feed birds throughout the winter.
  • Sedum and Ornamental Grasses should be left throughout the winter to add height and interest.
  • Butterfly Weed (Asclepias), Ferns, and Heuchera (Coral Bells) should be left until spring.

Learn more about perennial maintenance in our blog.

Bring Houseplants In Gradually

Before it gets too cold outside, any houseplants that you have brought outdoors for the summer should be gradually brought indoors so they acclimate slowly to the change in environment. If you have a screen porch or sheltered area, move the plants there for several days until you’re ready to bring them indoors for the winter. Give them a dose of organic fertilizer and make sure to pay extra attention to watering in their first month or so back indoors.

Plant Fall Bulbs

As long as you can still work the ground, easy-to-grow bulbs like Daffodils and perennial Tulips are a great addition to existing garden beds, along walkways, and lining fences. They are as easy as “dig, drop, done” and a little bit of effort goes a long way for that gorgeous spring color.

As always, we’re happy to help with any fall maintenance that you don’t have the time to get to yourself. Simply contact us for a quote.

October 31, 2018

New Healing Garden Completed At Northwestern Medical Center

A new healing garden has been completed as part of the most recent renovations at the Northwestern Medical Center in St. Albans, Vermont. The outdoor space was commissioned by the Medical Center to provide a location where patients and visitors can enjoy nature, feel secluded, and reflect outdoors.

We worked throughout the summer on this large involved project that includes a long ADA-compliant stone pathway, surrounded by native plants and trees, that brings patients to a seating area with a dry stream bed. Landscape designer David Burton says he wanted to incorporate a variety of landscaping details you see throughout Vermont, including a split-rail fence and a mixture of formal and informal plantings. “I wanted to provide the quintessential Vermont backyard for these patients,” he says. “I also wanted there to be interest year-long which we achieved through hardscaping as well as grasses and trees that stay beautiful throughout the winter months.”

Other features of the healing garden include:

  • Pollinator-friendly plants that help attract butterflies, bees, and other wildlife to the garden, including Echinacea, Sedum, Penstemon, Milkweed, and a variety of grasses.
  • Landscape lighting including path lights and accent lights on trees and boulders so patients can enjoy the garden in the dusk/evening hours.
  • A variety of large, flat patio areas where patients can relax and chat with family or friends.
  • The garden is just one of few healing gardens throughout the state and is innovative in its use of hardscaping, community planting, and natives to make it feel like you’re in a Vermont backyard.

We can’t wait to capture the beauty of the garden throughout the winter months and next season as all of the plants grow in.

September 25, 2018

Late Season Plants For Pollinators In Vermont

Although it’s important to plant habitat and nectar-rich plants for pollinators throughout the season, early spring and late fall are often the most important for bees and butterflies. In the late season garden, it’s vital to have plenty of flowering options for migrating Monarchs who are on the journey to Mexico, hummingbirds heading south, and bees trying to gather enough food to sustain themselves through the winter months. We’ll talk about easy-to-grow native and non-native varieties that you can add to your garden here in Vermont to help these pollinators in the late season.

Aster: Aster is one of the best late-season plants you can add to your landscape for pollinators. It’s native, easy-to-grow here in Vermont, winters over readily, and provides dependable color from September all the way through frost.

Verbena: This annual is a great source of nectar for hummingbirds and other pollinators. You can find it at most local garden centers in Vermont and if you deadhead and water regularly, it will keep blooming through frost. Add it to containers or in the garden bed for long-lasting color and a late-season food source for pollinators.

Sedum: Sedum offers up interest all season long with unique foliage and the blooms begin to open in September until frost. Bees can’t get enough of this perennial and it is a great nectar source for a variety of pollinators.

Mexican Sunflower: Also known as Tithonia, this fiery annual can be easily grown from seed or picked up as a starter plant at your local nursery. If planted in spring, it starts to bloom in the late season and if deadheaded will continue to bloom until frost. A favorite of butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.

Zinnia: Zinnia is one of the best annual varieties to plant for pollinators. It starts to bloom in summer and with proper deadheading will last all the way through frost, attracting a menagerie of bees, butterflies, and other pollinators to the garden. Extremely easy to grow from seed or starter plants from your local nursery.

Basil: If you’re the kind of gardener that likes to plant swaths of basil, consider letting some go to flower in the late season! These flowers are a great late-season source of food for pollinators.

Ornamental Grasses: Ornamental Grasses are a great source of habitat for birds and other pollinators throughout the winter. Keep your grasses up (don’t cut them down in fall!) for added height, interest, and to help birds with shelter throughout the winter months.

Echinacea: There are certain types of Echinacea varieties that last through the late summer and into fall, which provide an important food source for pollinators. Another great way to provide habitat and shelter for birds throughout the winter is to leave your Echinacea up through the colder months and cut them down in early spring.

Goldenrod: Also known as Solidago, this easy-to-grow perennial is an especially important source of nectar for honeybees in the late season garden. Other bees use the pollen to create nests and butterflies are also attracted to Goldenrod. As it readily spreads, plant Solidago where you can keep an eye on it and easily thin out plants each season.

As more and more gardeners are realizing the importance of adding pollinator-friendly plants to their gardens, many nurseries are following suit and making sure they clearly label these plants. When possible, try to purchase neonicotinoid-free plants and seeds to help give pollinators healthy plants to feed on.

Want to create a pollinator garden in your landscape? Contact our landscape designer today.

August 27, 2018

Gallery: Season-Long Color At A Home In South Burlington

When we first headed out to her home, this client had a great foundation for a gorgeous landscape. They had well-built rock walls and a patio in their backyard and a lovely brick path leading to their front door. We didn’t need to hardscape at their home, but they were looking to create big gardens throughout the property with color, color, color.

We created a variety of perennial beds in the front and back part of their property with varieties that bloom from spring to fall. We also go to their home each spring to plant long-lasting annuals to the garden beds to make them feel more full and to help extend that big color throughout the season. We went out there a couple of weeks ago to capture the beauty in the late summer. We hope you enjoy the gardens as much as we do!

August 14, 2018

Refreshing Containers In Late Summer

Once the full heat of summer hits, containers — especially those that were planted in the early spring — can start to look a little withered and sad. If you want to keep your containers fresh and looking healthy through fall, there are several steps you can take now to help.

Refreshing Containers – Watering

This is the most obvious and important step to keeping your containers looking healthy. While in May we can get away with watering just a couple of times per week, once summer is in full swing containers should be soaked pretty much everyday (or every other day) depending on the rainfall. Also, keep in mind that even if it rains, foliage in containers can be so dense that the rain may not reach the soil or roots of the container. Make sure to check the soil every day and if it feels dry, give the container a good soaking from the soil level.

Refreshing Containers – Fertilizing

In general, the more you fertilize your containers, the more vigorous the plants will grow. In summer, you should cut back fertilizing a bit as you don’t really want too much more growth (or the plants could get leggy). In summer you’re really looking to fertilize to help maintain healthy blooms and strong plants. Use a slow-release fertilizer that gives nutrients to your plants over a longer period of time instead of dosing them all at once. Also, use an organic and balanced fertilizer, like a 20-20-20 for an even amount of nutrients.

Refreshing Containers – Checking Sunlight

If the summer sun is drying out and frying your containers, consider placing them in an area with dappled or partial sunlight. You don’t want to take a sun-loving container and place it in a completely shady spot, but relocating it to an area with morning shade may help the plants last longer.

Refreshing Containers – Deadheading and Cutting Back

Deadheading is an important task that helps keep containers blooming throughout the season. As soon as a flower starts to brown, clip it off just above the stem break. This allows the plant to put energy into producing more blooms instead of going to seed.

If you’ve been deadheading and your plant still looks sad and overgrown, you may want to cut it back more aggressively. It may seem scary, but cutting varieties like Salvia back by 1/3 when they start to look leggy will help them maintain a good shape and healthy blooms throughout the fall. A good rule is if the plant is looking so bad you aren’t enjoying it anymore, try cutting it back by at least 1/3 as a last-ditch effort. If it doesn’t bounce back within a week or so, you may want to replace it.

Refreshing Containers – Replacing Spent Plants

As much as we put in the work to keep our annuals looking good throughout the season, sometimes plants just die. That’s ok — as gardeners, we’re used to it. But instead of ditching the whole container completely, you can replace the sad plant with something healthy and refreshing. This time of year, many local nurseries have their annuals at a huge discount (some even up to 80% off) and they’ve been working to keep the plants healthy for months. If you have the budget, head out and purchase several new annuals to fill in where your old plants didn’t make it. You’ll then enjoy a healthy container all the way through fall.

Containers are an easy and fun way to add pops of color in unexpected areas in the landscape, such as patios, porches, front entryways, and more. They can be changed each year with your style and with a little bit of maintenance throughout the season, can offer up blooms from spring all the way through fall.

July 23, 2018

How to Deadhead Plants to Promote Blooms All Season Long

This time of year our long-lasting perennials and annual plants can start to look a little sad, especially with the lack of rain we’ve been experiencing here in Vermont. To help give your plants a boost and promote blooming throughout the rest of the summer, it’s important to deadhead spent blooms on a regular basis and give plants a shot of organic fertilizer. We’ll talk about which plants to deadhead and how:

Why Deadhead?

The science behind deadheading is pretty simple. As a flower finishes blooming, it typically puts its energy into going to seed to regenerate for next season. If you leave the spent bloom on the plant, it will do just this and not produce any more blooms. If you pinch the spent bloom as soon as it’s finished, the plant will put that energy into producing more blooms. This is the case for annuals and perennials alike; so the more you can get out there and deadhead, the more blooms you’ll enjoy!

A simple way to remember where to deadhead is to pinch the plant (or use pruners) right above the leaf set of the spent bloom.

Deadheading Annuals

Most annuals that you get from your local nurseries to pot up in containers, windowboxes, or to fill in the front of your garden beds are supposed to be long-blooming varieties and will benefit greatly from regular deadheading. This list includes:

  • Geranium
  • Marigolds
  • Annual Salvia
  • Petunias
  • Cosmos
  • Zinnias
  • Canna Lilies
  • Begonias
  • Scabiosa
  • Snapdragons
  • Sweet Peas
  • Annual heliotrope

This is a list of the most common annuals that should be deadheaded, but if you have an annual growing that isn’t on this list, chances are it will benefit and bloom longer by cutting off spent blooms.

Deadheading Perennials

Most gardeners are familiar with deadheading annuals, but aren’t sure which perennials to deadhead. The philosophy behind deadheading is the same with perennial plants, although the list is a little shorter of which plants actually will put out more blooms after pinching spent ones. Some of the most common varieties to deadhead are:

  • Geranium
  • Coreopsis
  • Roses
  • Campanula
  • Blanket Flower
  • Yarrow
  • Bee Balm
  • Columbine
  • Delphinium
  • Lavender
  • Hollyhocks
  • Lupine
  • Daisies
  • Purple Coneflower

This is a list of the most common perennial varieties that may produce more flowers with regular deadheading. Deadheading can also be done to improve appearance on plants that won’t rebloom (to get rid of the brown, spent blooms) and can also be done the same way.

Just like with any garden task, the more frequently you get out there and deadhead the better the results. If you take an hour (or less) two times per week to check on your garden beds and containers, you can pinch spent blooms as soon as they’re finished and help keep your plant healthy and flowering all season long.

July 8, 2018

Summer Garden Maintenance

Summer in Vermont is always a mixed bag; either we have cool, rainy weather or (like this year) it’s unseasonably hot and dry. Despite the weather we’re given, there are several things you should always be doing in your mid-summer garden to help keep your plants healthy and growing strong. We’ll talk about some of the most important maintenance tasks for your summer garden.

Summer Garden Maintenance – Watering

Watering in summer, no matter what the weather, is extremely important. Here are a few tips to watering that will help keep your plants free from sunburn, mildew, and disease:

  • Although it may be tempting to set up a sprinkler in your garden, spraying the tops and foliage of the plants could result in them burning. The best way to water your plants is underneath the foliage right at the roots. If you’re looking for an automatic way to do this, soaker hoses are an affordable (and water-friendly) solution.
  • Water in the morning if possible. This lets any water that got onto the foliage dry before the sun reaches its peak in the afternoon. Watering in the evening is the second best option but if it’s extremely humid, this could cause root rot or your plants to become diseased.
  • Don’t water every day! This is a common misconception that gardens need to be watered on a daily basis. Many perennials are tough and don’t need constant watering. Check the soil in your garden beds and if a couple inches down the soil is dry, water. If it’s not, let it be.
  • Containers and raised beds should be monitored more closely than regular garden beds as water drains more regularly. Keep an eye on these parts of your landscape every day and check to see if they need a good water.
  • Water thoroughly. It’s better to soak your plants a few times a week than simply sprinkle them every day. A good soaking is important so the root systems get enough water, which means your plants will grow larger and more healthy.

Summer Garden Maintenance – Weeding

Many gardeners dread weeding, while others enjoy the monotony. Regardless of your feelings for this task, it’s extremely important to keep your garden beds weeded — especially in the summer.

Regular weeding helps create more airflow through your plants which helps with preventing disease. Weeds also can take water and nutrients from the soil that would otherwise be going to your plants, so that is another reason to stay on top of weeding in the summer months. Map out your week by sections of your garden so you’re not trying to tackle everything at once. If you spend 10 minutes a day on small portions of your landscape, it won’t feel so daunting and can be extremely manageable. If you really hate weeding, our expert gardening team can do it for you!

Summer Garden Maintenance – Deadheading

If you have annuals in hanging baskets, containers, or in your garden beds, deadheading is an important task to keep up on. Deadheading (removing spent blooms) helps the plant produce more blooms instead of putting its energy going to seed. If you continue to deadhead throughout the summer, most of your annuals should put out blooms all the way through fall.

Summer Garden Maintenance – Enjoy!

Summer gardens, especially here in Vermont, can be the most impressive of the season and it’s important to take time to enjoy the fruits of your labor and reflect on the beauty around you. And with a little regular maintenance in your gardens, your landscape will surely be a thing of beauty and color.

June 21, 2018

How To Attract Beneficial Bugs To Your Vegetable Garden With Flowering Plants

Many here in Vermont — whether you have a small property or acres of land — find joy in growing their own vegetables. This could mean setting up large pots with tomatoes on a porch in Burlington or building large raised beds in your backyard. With many of us trying to grow organically or as naturally as possible, one of the easiest ways to prevent harmful bugs and diseases in your vegetable garden — while also helping to attract pollinators — is to plant a variety of specific plants around your vegetables that help attract beneficial bugs to your garden.

What Is A Beneficial Bug?

First, let’s talk about what beneficial bugs are and what they do to help out your vegetable garden. Beneficial bugs are a variety of different species that help eliminate and control pests that can damage your garden and lawn. By attracting beneficial insects to your garden with certain plants, you can eliminate the use of insecticides and other toxic chemicals that not only wipe out these pests, but also the good bugs that you want in your garden.

We’ve put together a list of some of the most helpful and common beneficial bugs and what to plant to help attract them to your garden:

  • Ladybugs help by eliminating aphids, whiteflies, and potato beetles in your garden. You can attract them with Dill, Yarrow, Coriander, and even Dandelions!
  • Ground Beetles help by eliminating slugs, potato beetles, and cutworms from the garden. You can attract them with Primrose, Amaranth, and Clover.
  • Aphid Midges are a big help in controlling the aphid population in your garden. Any nectar-rich plant (like Dill, Fennel, Milkweed, and Zinnias) will help attract these beneficial bugs to your garden.
  • Green Lacewings prey on aphids, whiteflies, leafhoppers, and mealybugs. You can attract green Lacewings to your garden by planting Dill or Coriander.

Plant Marigolds Around Your Tomatoes And Other Vegetables

Another fantastic companion plant to add around your vegetable garden is Marigolds. Marigolds help your veggies in a big way by:

  • Attracting bees to the garden to pollinate your plants.
  • Marigolds have been shown to repel nematodes, slugs, tomato horn worms, and other garden pests from your Tomatoes and other plants.
  • They are low maintenance and don’t require any special attention or extra watering.
  • They are gorgeous! They add a nice pop of fiery color to the garden all season long and look great amongst your veggie plants.

As gardeners, we’re always looking for a way to grow smarter with less effort, cost, and negative impact on the environment. By adding a few specific (and cheap) plants around your vegetable garden in the spring or early summer, you’ll enjoy a pest-free, colorful garden all season long.